On average, even with the right antiviral therapy, it takes about 12 years for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients to develop AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). HIV places the body at risk for various pathologies and vulnerability to bacterial infections. In instances when there is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, doctors can prescribe antibiotics for HIV patients. Antibiotic treatment impacts gut flora, usually requiring a post-treatment course of probiotics.
Every infectious disease calls for an individual approach to treatment. Depending on the nature of the pathogen, certain antibiotics are prescribed for HIV patients. Bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected patients is more common than in the rest of the population. Even after recovery, as in the case of pneumocystis pneumonia, this can leave scarring in the lungs leading to restrictive breathing disorders for years.
Statistics show that bacterial pneumonia occurs at a rate approximately 100 cases per 1000 HIV-infected patients per year. The rate of pneumonia in HIV patients is 7-8 times higher compared with the non-infected population. Bacterial pneumonia often develops in the earlier stages of HIV infection. When immune deficiency worsens, there is a higher risk of infection.
When selecting drugs for the treatment of pneumonia in HIV patients, doctors should remember that the most likely pathogens are S. pneumonia and H. influenza. Bacterial pneumonia significantly worsens long-term patient prognosis. This is why recurrent bacterial pneumonia (i.e., more than one occurrence per year) is considered to be an AIDS-indicative disease.
The Protocol of Regional Office for Europe (2006) of the World Health Organization recommends that a child with symptoms of pulmonary infection (e.g., fever, cough, lung rales, and/or radiographic changes) should immediately be prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. The recommended antibiotic in these cases is Amoxil.
The method of antibiotic administration depends on patient condition. In most instances, an antibiotic course of therapy is recommended to last 10-14 days.
Patients with pneumonia should be carefully monitored. Clinical measurements (e.g., temperature reduction, laboratory data, respiratory symptoms, etc.) are typically acquired for 48-72 hours following the start of therapy. Following, x-ray images are taken to confirm the therapy has worked. However, if the condition deteriorates and there is no improvement within 24-72 hours, the diagnosis should be reconsidered and alternative antibiotics with a broader spectrum of action should be prescribed. For HIV patients, Amoxil does not interfere with the results of immune function analysis.